Hi Lucy @lucyinthesky827, an insulin-to-carb ratio of 1:3 does sound like a high ratio, but if this is what your son needs, then it is “right”. As @Joe says so often, in a few different ways, the correct amount of insulin to inject/infuse is what our body needs at that time, and under those circumstances. [This “Joe Wisdom” has helped me to refine, and improve, my diabetes management.]
What you don’t say her Lucy, is the level of your son’s glucose before eating, and what his glucose level is a couple of hours after eating. In addition to meal-time insulin bolus dosing based on carbohydrates consumed, what other insulin does your son use - background basal insulin by injection, or background basal infused by a pump?
There are two similar causes for us needing ‘more’ insulin in the morning, “Dawn Phenomenon” and “Somogyi Effect” - the dawn phenomenon occurs naturally in every one with autoimmune diabetes [TypeOne] because our bodies do not make the additional insulin needed by everyone [with or without diabetes] to counteract the adrenalin release need to awaken naturally. For this, I use a couple of timed insulin-pump basal rate increases beginning a few hours before I usually awaken.
The “Somogyi Effect” is a similar rise in glucose levels in the morning, but it is not natural - it is caused by ineffective insulin management - usually the day/evening before. The Somogyi, caused by diabetes management decisions, is what often-times causes the hypoglycemic event in the early [3 AM] morning hours. I learned the hard way that the improper timing of my evening background-insulin doses and skipping evening snacks was the cause of my night-time severe lows and needing so much insulin for breakfast.
Insulin dosing is a 24 hour task.