Hi Hailey and Irada (I tried to answer your question as well in #2)!
All very good questions. I will tell you what I know from the research I've done and the books I've read. I agree with Gina, these are all great questions for your doctor and I would absolutely ask the next time you go in to see them. I was diagnosed at 15 and had all the same questions! Being able to get pregnant and have a healthy baby was a major concern of mine, even then! It's just always been my dream to be a Mom, so I understand where you're coming from. I highly recommend the book, "Balancing Pregnancy with Pre-Existing Diabetes: Healthy Mom, Healthy Baby" by Cheryl Alkon. Cheryl is a type 1 diabetic and her book literally breaks down all aspects of pregnancy with diabetes for you. Great read and really informative!
1. Having constant high blood sugars could possibly lead to a miscarriage. In the book I mentioned above it states this, "If blood glucose levels are high during conception and thereafter, the embryo does not form correctly and there is an increased rate of a blighted ovum." A blighted ovum just describes a pregnancy in which the embryo didn't develop properly or stopped growing early. Dr. Tamara Takoudes is quoted in the book as saying, "Type 1 and type 2 diabetes increases the risk of miscarriage, especially with poor or less-than-optimal glycemic control, due to unknown causes. The best remedy for this is diligent and compulsive control prior to conception. Once conception has happened, better control is good, but the horse is out of the barn already." Therefore the key is good blood sugar control early on before pregnancy! The book says that if your A1c is within the recommended preconception range, you are at no higher risk for miscarriage than an average woman. Although it's believed that on average, 10-20% of all pregnancies end in miscarriage. So just take care of yourself now, and then you'll have no need to worry!
2. I've HEAVILY researched this subject! I was terrified that my baby would be born with diabetes and I could not imagine having to stick a beautiful little baby with needles and lancets. Here is the breakdown of your child's risk for diabetes:
-If neither parent has diabetes, the child has a 1/100 or 10% chance of having type 1 diabetes.
-If the mother has type 1 diabetes and the child is born before the mother is 25, the child has a 1/25 chance of having type 1 diabetes.
-If the mother has type 1 diabetes and the child is born after the mother is 25, the child has a 1/100 chance of having type 1 diabetes. (Meaning that your child would have the same odds of having type 1 as a child with non-diabetic parents.)
-If the father has type 1 diabetes, the child has a 1/17 chance of having type 1 diabetes.
-If both parents have type 1 diabetes, the child has a 1/4-1/10 chance of having type 1 diabetes.
Sorry, I know that some of those numbers are scary, but it's still good to know. I've met plenty of diabetics with happy, healthy children. As far as the likelihood of the child developing diabetes down the line, it's always a possibility. I'm not sure of the exact odds, but as with all of these questions, I'd ask your doctor and see what kind of knowledge they have on the subject.
3. Insulin injections should not affect the baby in any way. The only way that an insulin injection could impact the baby is if you were to frequently miss injections, making your blood sugars consistantly high. In that case, with CONSISTANT high blood sugars (an occasional one is expected, no one is perfect!) you put yourself at risk for miscarriage, as well as put your baby at risk for birth defects or other problems. So as long as you take your insulin appropriately and as directed by your doctor, it shouldn't affect the baby at all!
4. In general, diabetes greatly impacts a pregnancy. If you're diabetic and pregnant it tends to be more work than a normal woman who is pregnant. Most doctors will send you to a high risk OB/GYN. You'll have more doctors visits, both with your OB and your endocrinologist. You'll have to monitor your blood sugars extremely closely and continue to give yourself insulin, count your carbs, watch what you eat, etc. The most important thing though is that we can have easy, normal pregnancies just like anyone else! It might be a bit more work, but if in the end we walk away with a healthy baby, it's all worth it! There are a lot of different aspects to pregnancy with diabetes, entire books are dedicated to the subject! So I would just recommend picking one up, such as the one I suggested earlier, and reading it, even if you're not planning to have a baby any time soon! I know it really eased my fears and helped me understand exactly what to expect.
I hope this helps and answers your questions! Please let me know if there are any additional questions you have or if you need clarification on anything!